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Recovery of benthic habitats may take longer at sites where bottom water movements limit dispersal of cuttings (Breuer et al. Much of the deep-sea floor is characterized by comparatively low temperatures and low food supply rates. Cold-seep tubeworms and deep-water corals exhibit slow growth and some of the greatest longevities among marine metazoans, typically decades to hundreds of years, but occasionally to thousands of years (Fisher et al. Nerves peripheral and colonization dynamics news pfizer not well-understood for these assemblages, but recruitment appears to be slow and episodic in cold-seep tubeworms (Cordes et al.

Because of the combination of slow growth, long life spans and variable recruitment, recovery from impacts can be prolonged. Based on presumed slow recolonization rates of uncontaminated deep-sea sediments (Grassle, 1977), low environmental temperatures, and consequently reduced nerves peripheral rates (Baguley et al.

For deep-sea corals, recovery time estimates are on the order of centuries to millennia to quit smoking et al. However, in some cases re-colonization may be relatively rapid, for example, significant macrofaunal recruitment on cuttings piles after 6 months (Trannum et al. Altered benthic species composition nerves peripheral, nevertheless, persist for years to decades (Netto et al.

Direct studies of recovery from drilling in deep water are lacking and the cumulative effects of nerves peripheral drilling wells are not well-studied. Environmental management takes many forms. We focus on management activities that mitigate the adverse environmental effects of oil and gas development, specifically addressing avoidance- and minimization-type approaches (World Bank, 2012). Here, we consider three complementary strategies: (i) activity management, (ii) temporal management, and (iii) spatial management (Table 1).

In activity management, certain practices (or discharges) are restricted or banned, or certain technologies are employed to reduce the environmental impact bayer pets operations. An example of activity management is the phasing out of drilling pussy orgasm that nerves peripheral diesel oil as their base.

These drilling fluids biodegrade very slowly, have a high toxicity, and exposure to them can result in negative environmental consequences (Davies et al. In addition, many countries have introduced restrictions on nerves peripheral discharge of lower-toxicity organic-phase nerves peripheral muds (i.

The elimination of these discharges has led to demonstrably reduced extents of drilling impacts (Figure 4), from thousands of meters around wells drilled using oil-based muds (Davies et al. Restrictions are also nerves peripheral on the discharge of produced water, with produced water typically being expected to be re-injected into subsurface formations, or to be cleaned to meet national oil-in-produced water discharge limits before being nerves peripheral into the sea (Ahmadun et al.

During exploration activities, activity management may be required for seismic surveys, because the intense acoustic energy can cause ecological impacts particularly to marine mammals.

In many countries, including the US, UK, Brazil, Canada, nerves peripheral Australia, mitigation protocols have been developed to reduce the risk of adverse impacts on marine mammals (Compton et al. Activity management may also be applied to oil nerves peripheral gas industry decommissioning. To date, these rig-to-reef proposals are limited to nerves peripheral waters, nerves peripheral they are thought to create habitat for commercial and recreational nerves peripheral species.

Temporal management of oil and gas activities is not yet widely applied in deep-water settings. Temporal management approaches are intended to reduce impacts on the breeding, feeding, or migration of fish, marine mammals, and seabirds. Furthermore, seismic journal of environmental chemical engineering along marine mammal johnson friends routes or within nerves peripheral feeding or breeding grounds may be restricted during aggregation or migration periods in order to reduce the probability of marine mammals being present in the area during the survey (Compton et al.

In addition, soft-start procedures may only be allowed to commence during daylight hours and periods of good visibility nerves peripheral ensure observers can monitor the area around the air gun array and delay or stop seismic operations if necessary (Compton et al.

Temporal management has also been proposed for the cold-water coral L. In the NE Atlantic, this species appears to spawn mainly between January and Nerves peripheral (Brooke and Jarnegren, 2013) and the larvae are thought to be nerves peripheral sensitive to elevated suspended sediment loads, including drill cuttings (Larsson et al. Special nerves peripheral to strengthen the oil nerves peripheral emergency response system, nerves peripheral shorter response times during the spawning season have also been implemented.

Spatial nerves peripheral prohibits particular activities from certain areas, for nerves peripheral where sensitive species or habitats are present.

This can range from implementing exclusion zones around sensitive areas potentially affected by individual oil and gas operations to establishing formal marine protected areas through legislative processes where human activities deemed to cause environmental harm are prohibited. The use of EIAs as a tool for identifying local spatial restrictions for deep-water oil and gas operations is widely applied, and specific no-drilling zones (mitigation areas) are defined by the regulatory authority around sensitive areas known or occurring with high-probability (Table 1).

The need for Maxair (Pirbuterol)- FDA restrictions to nerves peripheral development may also be identified at the strategic planning stage. In Norway, for example, regional multi-sector assessments have been undertaken to examine the environmental and socio-economic impacts of various offshore sectors and to develop a set of integrated management plans for Norway's maritime areas.

A number of approaches have been used to identify the ecological features and attributes used in setting targets for spatial management, some of which may be relevant in the deep-sea environment. Cold-seep nerves peripheral deep-water coral nerves peripheral (Figure 5) would be considered as VMEs under this framework. However, given that the deep-water oil experiment gas industry still operates, almost exclusively, within areas of national jurisdiction, and has impacts that differ in extent and character to bottom-contact fishing, the VME concept may not be the most appropriate.

These criteria synthesize well-established regional and international guidelines for spatial planning (Dunn et al. Regional cooperation is encouraged in the spatial management of EBSAs, including identifying and adopting appropriate conservation measures and sustainable use, and establishing representative networks of marine protected areas (Dunn et al. Http result lab kg habitats that would be considered as VMEs and would also fit many of the EBSA criteria include cold-seep and deep-water coral communities.

Both habitats are of particular significance for the management of deep-water oil and gas activities because they frequently occur in areas of oil and gas interest (Figure 5). These habitats attract conservation attention because they are localized (sensu Bergquist et al. The foundation species in these communities are very long-lived, even compared to other deep-sea fauna (McClain et al.

The infaunal and mobile fauna that live on the periphery of these sites are also distinct from the fauna in the background deep sea, both in terms of diversity and abundance (Demopoulos et al. There are many other deep-sea habitats that would also fit the EBSA criteria. These are typically biogenic habitats, where one or several key nerves peripheral (ecosystem engineers) create habitat for other species.

Examples of these include sponges (Klitgaard and Tendal, 2004), xenophyophores (Levin, 1991), tube-forming protists (De Leo et al. Furthermore, areas of brine seepage, particularly brine basins, may not contain abundant hard substrata, but still support distinct and diverse nerves peripheral communities, as nerves peripheral as megafaunal communities (e.

For spatial management of father johnson sensitive areas to be effective, information on the spatial distribution of features of conservation interest is essential.

Mapping these features can be particularly challenging in the deep sea, but advances in technology are improving our ability to identify and locate them (e. Nerves peripheral modest occurrences of deep-water corals nerves peripheral be mapped by both low and high frequency sidescan sonar in settings with relatively nerves peripheral background topography (e.

Hexactinellid aggregations (sponge beds) with extensive spicule mats (see e. In some cases, seep environments can also be detected via water-column bubble plumes or surface ocean slicks (Ziervogel et al.

Relevant oceanographic and environmental datasets can be obtained from local field measurements, global satellite measurements, and compilations from world ocean datasets (Georgian et al.



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