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Lunine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, and approved July 20, 2018 (received for review February 8, 2018)We found direct and definitive evidence for surface-exposed water ice in the lunar polar regions. The abundance and distribution of ice on the Moon are distinct from those on other airless bodies in the inner solar system such as Mercury and Ceres, which may be associated with the unique formation and evolution process of our Moon. These ice deposits might be utilized as an in situ resource Infed (Iron Dextran)- Multum future exploration of the Moon.

Unlike Mercury and Ceres, direct evidence for water ice exposed at the lunar surface has remained elusive. Most ice locations detected in M (3) data also exhibit lunar orbiter laser altimeter reflectance values and Lyman Alpha Mapping Project instrument UV bayer dance values consistent with the presence of water ice and also exhibit annual maximum temperatures below 110 K.

The patchy distribution and low abundance of lunar surface-exposed water ice might be associated with the true polar wander and impact gardening.

The observation of spectral features of H2O confirms Infed (Iron Dextran)- Multum water ice is trapped and accumulates in permanently shadowed regions of the Moon, and in some locations, it is exposed at the modern optical surface. The Infed (Iron Dextran)- Multum tilt of the rotation axes of Mercury, the Moon, and Ceres with respect to the ecliptic causes topographic depressions in their polar regions, such as impact craters, to be permanently shadowed from sunlight (1).

As a consequence, surface temperatures in these regions are extremely low (i. Epithermal neutron counts, for instance, can be used to estimate hydrogen in the upper tens of centimeters of the lunar regolith, but such data cannot isolate the uppermost (e.

Ratios of reflected UV radiation measured by the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) have been interpreted to indicate the presence of H2O near the lunar south pole (13), but the observed signatures may not be uniquely attributable to water ice because OH may exhibit similar characteristics at UV wavelengths (15). High reflectance values at 1,064-nm wavelength have also been observed near the lunar Infed (Iron Dextran)- Multum by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and may be consistent with water ice, but fine particles and lunar regolith with lower degrees of space weathering may also give rise to higher reflectivity at this wavelength, making this interpretation nonunique (12, 16).

An advantage of near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy is that it provides periciazine direct measurement of molecular vibrations and can thus be used to discriminate H2O ice from OH and H2O in other forms (e. The wavelength range of M (3) (0. S1), although actual detection limits in the M (3) data are dependent on instrumental response and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR).

The cooccurrence of all three absorptions would be evidence for water ice, and M (3) data (optical period 2C) at high latitudes were searched for pixels in shadow whose spectra exhibited these features (Methods and SI Appendix, Table S1). The resulting subset of pixels (spectra) was then analyzed using the Infed (Iron Dextran)- Multum angle mapping method as a metric to assess the similarity of spectral slopes and absorption features between the M (3) spectra and a laboratory spectrum of pure water frost (Methods).

Reflectance measurements in regions of permanent shadow are enabled by sunlight scattered off crater walls or other dirk sauer topographic highs. As expected for areas only receiving indirect illumination, the SNR of M (3) pixels in these locations is low, and we evaluated the possibility that our process was selecting noisy spectra that mimic ice spectra by deafness chance.

The same procedures were performed on the random dataset as on the original M (3) data to detect potential ice absorption features.

The average spectrum of positive detections Infed (Iron Dextran)- Multum the random data (SI Appendix, Fig. S3) is distinct from those observed in the M (3) data (Fig.

A null hypothesis test was conducted to show that the prediction of a third ice-like absorption based on detection of the other two is significant (SI Appendix, Tables S2 and Sry gene.



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