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Start of the United States-based campaign Access2Research in which open access advocates (Michael W. Carroll, HeatherJoseph, Mike Rossner, and John Wilbanks) appealed to the United States government to require that taxpayer-fundedresearch be made available to the public under open licensing. This campaign was widely successful, and the directive andFASTR (the Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act) have become defining pieces in the progress of OA in theUSA at the federal level.

January: The suicide of Aaron Swartz draws new international attention for the Open Access movement. November: Berlin 11 Satellite Conference for students and early career researchers, which brought together more than 70participants from 35 countries to engage on Open Access to scientific and scholarly research. First OpenCon in Washington DC, an annual conference for students and early career researchers on Open Access, OpenData, and Open Educational resources.

Academic publisher Elsevier makes a complaint in New York City for copyright infringement by Sci-Hub. Sci-Hub is foundguilty and ordered to shut down. The website re-emerges under a different domain name as a consequence. A secondhearing in March 2016 is delayed due to failure of the defendant to appear in court, and to gather more evidence for theprosecution. But lists, especially ones that provide an easily accessible way to learn essential information, have their purposes.

Below, I offer 12 articles that I think every aspiring economist should read. Before we get to the list, let me say a few things about how I created it. Markets are communication systems, without which we would not have advanced production and the wealth it brings.

First, my imagined audience is an undergraduate who intends to enter a PhD program in economics, although the list could be interesting and useful for other people with other goals.

Second, this list most certainly reflects my own interests and training. I can think of another dozen important reads that I left off this list. So I am certainly not making a definitive statement of the 12 best, or only, articles one should read. These are simply 12 that I think are important to read to understand sound economics, ideally before one heads off to grad school in economics.

It remains the definitive statement of the absolute necessity of private property, markets, and money prices in order for people to have a clue about what to produce and how to produce it. The lesson is that markets are communication systems, without which we would not have advanced production and the wealth it brings. Firms are sometimes lower-cost ways to organize production rather than specific contracts. It is a must-read for any discussion of externalities and property rights.

Alchian explores how markets are learning processes by which profit-seeking firms engage in adaptive and imitative behavior in search of those profits. This model contrasts with the unrealistic, static models of much of microeconomics. Demsetz focuses on how property rights define domains of action and responsibility and thereby enable us to internalize externalities. Going beyond Coase, Demsetz also explores the idea of property rights as bundles of particular rights and how those bundles vary by context.

The features of money he describes explain why systematic macroeconomic disorder, such as recessions or the boom-bust cycle, must ultimately have origins in mismanaged money. In other words, in the long run, inflation cannot reduce unemployment. When we model the effects of macroeconomic policy, we should assume that the public knows what those policies and their effects are, and those expectations must be incorporated in the model. The result was what is now known as the rational expectations model, in which there is no systematic trade-off between inflation and unemployment even in the short run.

Those institutions will determine how beneficial those consequences are. McCloskey argues that the best work in economics succeeded because it persuaded other economists with the good use of various rhetorical techniques. Economists would be better if we acknowledged this as part of our science and thereby paid more careful attention to using such techniques well.

So make yourself a big, long reading list and get reading. Steven Horwitz is the Distinguished Professor of Free Enterprise in the Department of Economics at Ball State University, where he also is Director of the Institute for the Study of Political Economy. He is the author of Austrian Economics: An Introduction. Sorry, it looks like your browser is blocking JavaScript for fee. This page relies heavily on JavaScript. Please, enable JavaScript and reload the page to enjoy our modern features.

Please do not edit the piece, ensure that you attribute the author and mention that this article was originally published on FEE. LatestStories 12 Articles Every Aspiring Economist Should Read A List to Help You Start Your Serious Economics Education Steven Horwitz Economics Economic HIstory Microeconomics Central Planning Bureaucracy Methodological Individualism Politics Free Markets Value Theory Public Choice Theory Nothing stirs up controversy in the digital age quite like a list.

Steven Horwitz Steven Horwitz is the Distinguished Professor of Free Enterprise in the Department of Economics at Ball State University, where he also is Director of the Institute for the Study of Political Economy.

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Well, while data is not a new concept for telecom service providers and has been around for years (a couple of decades to say so), it's only in the recent years that it's been slipping out telcos' control. A fact of the matter is that data growth in the recent years, especially after 3G tariffs were slashed by up to 80 percent, has been unprecedented.